Thursday, December 17, 2009

एस धम्मो सनंतनॊ – ओशो की दिव्य दृष्टि से


यह कुछ अजीब सा इत्त्फ़ाक ही है कि बुद्ध तक पहुँचने तक मेरा मार्ग ओशो की दिव्य वाणी और व्याख्या से निकला । करीब १० वर्ष पूर्व जब पहली बार ओशो द्वारा प्रवचित एस धम्मो सनंतनॊ को पढने और समझने का मौका मिला तो मेरे पथ स्वयं ही बुद्ध की ओर मुड गये । सच मे ओशो ने बुद्ध को बहुत गहराई से समझा है । ’ एस धम्मो सनंतनॊ  ’  मे केवल व्याख्या ही नही है , ओशो की दिव्य मनीषा , गहन बोध , और सहजानुभूति का उन्मेष भी है । सावत्थी मे पंचसत भिक्खु को दिये गय उपदेश ही निहित इस प्रशन – ’ को धमपदं  सुदेसितं कुसलॊ पुप्फ़मिव पचेस्सति ’ – का उत्तर ओशो की  ’ एस धम्मो सनंतनॊ  ’ शीर्षक वार्ता माला के रुप मे हमारे सामने उपसिथत हो गया है  ।

स्वामी प्रेम विस्तार जी का आभारी हूँ जिनकी अथक मेहनत से ओशो की ’’एस धम्मो सनंतनॊ ’  पर यह व्याख्या माला आडियो के रुप मे हमारे सामने है । १२ खंडों मे निहित ’एस धम्मो सनंतनॊ ’ पर ओशो की व्याख्या को डाऊनलोड करने के लिये निम्म लिंक पर चटका लगायें ।

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 01

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 02

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 03

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 04

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 05

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 06

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 07

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 08

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 09

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 10

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 11

Es Dhammo Sanantano Vol. 12

Tuesday, December 8, 2009

Shingon Teaching


Shingon is a form of Japanese Esoteric Buddhism, it is also called Shingon Mikkyo. This school was founded in 804 AD by Kukai (Kobo Daishi) in Japan. The teachings of Shingon are based on the Mahavairocana Sutra and the Vajrasekhara Sutra, the fundamental sutras of Shingon. Through the cultivation of three secrets, the actions of body, speech and mind, we are able to attain enlightenment in this very body. When we can sustain this state of mind, we can become one with the life force of the Universe, known as Mahavairocana Buddha. The symbolic activities are present anywhere in the universe. Natural phenomena such as mountains and oceans and even humans express the truth described in the sutras.
The universe itself embodies and can not be separated from the teaching. In the Shingon tradition, the practitioner uses the same techniques that were used over 1,200 years ago by Kukai, and have been transmitted orally generation after generation to the present. As Shingon Buddhists, there are three vows to observe in our lives:
May we realize Buddhahood in this very life.
May we dedicate ourselves to the well-being of people.
May we establish the World of Buddha on this earth.
Becoming a Buddha in This Very Life (Sokushin Jobutsu) The unique feature of this Shingon Teaching is that one does not become a Buddha only in his mind, nor does one become a Buddha after one has died. It means one is able to attain perfection of all of the qualities of a Buddha while one is yet living in his present physical body. An essay on the Bodhicitta (Bodaishin-ron) says: "One speedily attained great Awakening in the very body born of mother and father." According to the Shingon tradition, all things in this universe -- both physical matter, mind and mental states -- are made up of some six primary elements. These six primary elements are: earth (the principle of solidity), water (moisture), fire (energy), wind (movement), space (the state of being unobstructed) and consciousness (the six ways of knowing objects). Buddha as well as ordinary human beings are made up of these six elements, and in this sense both Buddha and human beings are basically and in essence identical. When we realize this truth, then our actions, our words, and our thoughts will undergo and experience of faith which will cause them to be correct and purify their surroundings. This living, physical body will be able to achieve Buddhahood.
Salvation and Enlightenment. Shingon Buddhism grants salvation and enlightenment to human beings who would otherwise be caught in the cycle of birth and death. Once a person is able to enter the gate of this faith, he/she will be able to receive that salvation and guidance of many Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. It is a religion in which that person will be fortunate enough to be able to recite the mantras that are the Buddha's own words. Kobo Daishi explained two points as its special characteristics:
1. Attainment of enlightenment in this very body.
2. The present moment that clearly teaches the content of enlightenment.
He explained these two aspects throughout his writings like, "The Meaning of Becoming a Buddha in This Body," "The Ten Stages in the Development of the Mind," "The Meaning of the Secret Samaya Precepts of the Buddha." It is a blessings of Shingon Buddhism to make it possible to come into direct contact with the practices leading to salvation. Shingon discipline The Shingon Teachings are broad and profound, and require strict discipline to put into practice. If we do not personally practice them in our daily lives of faith, then this treasure will become a useless possession. In actuality, we must manifest the teachings and practice of becoming a Buddha in this body in concrete form. The form of this faith is the developing one's mind into higher stage and engaging in discipline. There are various meditation techniques in Shingon traditions including the practice for gaining secular benefits for others by using mantra chanting and mudra hand signs as well as seeking enlightenment in this very body for oneself.
Shingon Discipline
The followings are some of the major forms practiced by many practitioners: Susokukan (Basic meditation to find one's own breathing pace) Gachirinkan (Moon Disc meditation) Ajikan (A syllable meditation) These practices are gateways into understanding the nature of Reality. Through these gateways we can experience many states of consciousness and as our skill develops we begin to have real insight into the nature of the unproduced state. Through these meditations we can experience the flow of energy from this state into this physical plane of existence. However, this state cannot be experienced without correct understanding of its doctrine and the guide by an authentic teacher.
Seicho Asahi
Northern California Koyasan Temple

source :

Heart of the Buddhist Prajna-Paramita Sutra-प्रज्ञापारमिताहृदय मन्त्र (Prajna Paramita Mantra)

“गते गते पारगते पारसंगाते बोधि स्वाहा”

gate gate pāragate pārasaṃgate bodhi svāhā

जागृत  हो , वह चला गया है , हमेशा के लिये परे चला गया है !!

gone gone, gone beyond, gone altogether beyond, O what an awakening, all hail!

Heart of the Buddhist Prajna-Paramita Sutra which is also known as Heart Sutra, is the shortest and most popular sutra in Buddhism. Heart Sutra is taken as the essence of Gautam Buddha Teachings.
In the English Translation the word 'Emptiness' is very often used. 'Emptiness' is the usual translation for the Buddhist term Sunyata which means Nothingness.
English Translation of heart Sutra is follows:

Body is nothing more than emptiness,
emptiness is nothing more than body.
The body is exactly empty,
and emptiness is exactly body.

The other four aspects of human existence --
feeling, thought, will, and consciousness --
are likewise nothing more than emptiness,
and emptiness nothing more than they.

All things are empty:
Nothing is born, nothing dies,
nothing is pure, nothing is stained,
nothing increases and nothing decreases.

So, in emptiness, there is no body,
no feeling, no thought,
no will, no consciousness.
There are no eyes, no ears,
no nose, no tongue,
no body, no mind.
There is no seeing, no hearing,
no smelling, no tasting,
no touching, no imagining.
There is nothing seen, nor heard,
nor smelled, nor tasted,
nor touched, nor imagined.

There is no ignorance,
and no end to ignorance.
There is no old age and death,
and no end to old age and death.
There is no suffering, no cause of suffering,
no end to suffering, no path to follow.
There is no attainment of wisdom,
and no wisdom to attain.

The Bodhisattvas rely on the Perfection of Wisdom,
and so with no delusions,
they feel no fear,
and have Nirvana here and now.

All the Buddhas,
past, present, and future,
rely on the Perfection of Wisdom,
and live in full enlightenment.

The Perfection of Wisdom is the greatest mantra.
It is the clearest mantra,
the highest mantra,
the mantra that removes all suffering.

This is truth that cannot be doubted.
Say it so:



         Which means...

        gone over,
        gone fully over.
        So be it!

जागृत  हो , वह चला गया है , हमेशा के लिये परे चला गया है !!

courtesy :

Monday, December 7, 2009

Promise me

Promise me,
promise me this day,
promise me now,
while the sun is overhead
exactly at the zenith,
promise me:
Even as they strike you down
with a mountain of hatred and violence;
even as they step on you and crush you
like a worm,
even as they dismember and disembowel you,
remember, brother, remember:
man is not your enemy.
The only thing worthy of you is
compassion --invincible, limitless, unconditional.
Hatred will never let you face the
beast in man.
One day, when you face this beast alone,
with your courage intact, your eyes kind, untroubled(even as no one sees them),
out of your smile will bloom a flower.
And those who love you will behold you
across ten thousands worlds of birth
and dying.
Alone again,
I will go on with bent head,
knowing that love has become eternal.
On the long, rough road,
the sun and the moon
will continue to shine.
~Thich Nhat Hanh

Tuesday, November 24, 2009

विषम परिस्थितियों में भी राहें हैं ….. (When there’s no way out there’s still a way through…)

जब जीवन बोझ और तनाव से ग्रसित दिखे तो क्या करे , जब परिस्थितयाँ अपने अनूकूल न हो उन क्षणॊं मे कहाँ जायें । देव कैरोल ( Dave Carroll) का यह वीडियो , “Now” इन क्षणॊं को गंभीरता से तलाशता सा प्रतीत होता है । “Now” देव की एलबम "Perfect Blue" से है जिसकी प्रेरणा उन्हें इकहर्ट टौले (Eckhart Tolle) की पुस्तक "The Power of Now" से प्राप्त हुयी । शब्दों का बहुत ही खूबसूरत मंजर को देव ने  अपने संगीत और कंठ से निखारा है ।


- Dave Carroll (Socan)

When there’s no way out there’s still a way through
So don’t give up whatever you do
Surrender to moments and things as they are
From the gaps in your catch-22’s
When there’s no way out there’s still a way through

Cause Now’s all there is
So peaceful and still
In Now you don’t worry ‘bout what’s happened or what will
Cause Now never ends
And Now’s never been
And all of your answers are waiting for you here Now

When your world stands tough and weighin’ you down
And you’ve had enough of this merry-go-round
End your resistance to walls you won’t move
And runnin’ through old déjà vu’s
When there’s no way out there’s still a way through


And when you don’t understand
How things got so far away from all you planned
And your life it feels so hard
In your fragile house of cards
Turn to your cornerstone when you’re tired and feel alone
To find your way through


Holy Buddhist Tipitaka: Itivuttaka The Group of Threes

Saturday, November 14, 2009

Daily Life



Try to be mindful, and let things take their natural course.
Then your mind will become still in any surroundings,
        like a clear forest pool.
All kinds of wonderful, rare animals will come to drink at the pool,
        and you will clearly see the nature of all things.
You will see many strange and wonderful things come and go,
        but you will be still.
This is the happiness of the Buddha.
                                    ~  Ajahn Chah, from "A Still Forest

Saturday, September 12, 2009

पौराणिक एनिमेशन फिल्म - बुद्ध (हिंदी) -Mythological Animation Film - Buddha (Hindi)

राजश्री प्रोड्क्शन ने गत वर्ष गौतम बुद्ध पर एक पौराणिक एनीमेशन फ़िल्म का निर्माण किया था । ३० मिनट की यह ऐनीमेशन फ़िल्म हिन्दी मे है और भगवान बुद्ध की शिक्षाओं और जीवनी पर आधारित यू ट्यूब पर उपलब्ध है ।

Wednesday, July 22, 2009

नालन्दा विशवविधालय – एक इतिहास जो संभवत: पुनर्जीवित हो …

इतिहास हमेशा कडवा ही क्यूं होता है । क्यूं एक धर्म के मतावल्म्बी दूसरे धर्म से इतनी नफ़रत रखते हैं । धम्मपद की गाथा मे  बुद्ध कहते हैं 

न हि वेरेन वेरानि, सम्मन्तीध कुदाचनं।
अवेरेन च सम्मन्ति, एस धम्मो सनन्तनो॥
इस लोक मे कभी भी वैर से वैर शांत नहीं होता , बल्कि अवैर से शांत होता है । यही सनातन धर्म है ।  धम्मपद : यमकवग्गो- गाथा ५

परे च न विजानन्ति, मयमेत्थ यमामसे।
ये च तत्थ विजानन्ति, ततो सम्मन्ति मेधगा॥
अनाडी लोग नही जानते कि हम इस संसार से जाने वाले हैं । जो इसे जान लेते हैं उनके झगडॆ शांत हो जाते हैं । धम्मपद: यमकवग्गो- गाथा ६
काश इस तथ्य को सभी धर्मालम्बी समझें  और परस्पर प्रेम से  रहें । लेकिन क्या यह संभव है ,  इतिहास इतना अधिक क्रूर और भयावह है कि इसकी परिकल्पना भी नही की जा सकती । अपने देश मे अनेक मन्दिर और बौद्ध शिक्षा केन्द्र इसलामी विचारों की भेंट चढे यह एक इतिहास की अजीब सी विडंबना है कि हिन्दू और बौद्ध विचारों को मुस्लिम सोच ने नष्ट किया और बाद में बुद्ध धर्म की फ़ैलती शाखाओं को हिन्दू धर्म से आदि शंकारकाचार्य ने नष्ट किया । यही नही यह सोच अब तक जारी है ,  वर्तमान मे पाकिस्तान मे स्वात में तालिबान की बौद्ध धर्मस्थलॊ को नष्ट करने की धमकी या कुछ वर्ष पूर्व अफ़गानिस्तान मे बामियान मे बुद्ध प्रतिमा को नष्ट करना भी इसी सोच का नतीजा है ।
नालन्दा विशवविधालय की वर्तमान स्थिति भी इसी कटरवादी सोच का नतीजा थी  । संस्कृत में नालंदा का अर्थ होता है ज्ञान देने वाला (नालम = कमल, जो ज्ञान का प्रतीक है; दा = देना)। बुद्ध अपने जीवनकाल में कई बार नालंदा आए और लंबे समय तक ठहरे। जैन धर्म के तीर्थंकर भगवान महावीर का निर्वाण भी नालंदा में ही पावापुरी नामक स्थान पर हुआ। कहते हैं कि खिलजी जब नालंदा पहुंचा, तब उसने पूछा कि यहां पवित्र कुरान है क्या? उत्तर नहीं में मिलने पर उसने यहां आग लगवा दी, सब कुछ तहस-नहस कर दिया। इरानी विद्वान मिन्हाज के अनुसार कई विद्वान शिक्षकों को ज़िन्दा जला दिया गया और कईयों के सर काट लिये गए। इस घटना को कई विद्वानों द्वारा बौद्ध धर्म के पतन के एक कारण के रूप में देखा जाता है। कई विद्वान यह भी कहते हैं कि अनेक महत्वपूर्ण ग्रन्थों के नष्ट हो जाने से भारत आने वाले समय में विज्ञान, खगोलशास्त्र, चिकित्सा और गणित जैसे क्षेत्रों मे पिछड़ गया ।
भारत सरकार के पर्यटन मंत्रालय के अतुल्य भारत अभियान के साथ मिल कर एनडीटीवी द्वारा आयोजित एक राष्ट्रव्यापी सर्वेक्षण के तहत कोणार्क सूर्य मंदिर, मीनाक्षी मंदिर, खजुराहो, लाल किला, दिल्ली, जैसलमेर दुर्ग, नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय और धौलावीर जैसे स्थलों को भारत के सात आश्चर्य के रूप में चुना गया है। वीडियो के लिये साभार : यू ट्यूब
नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय भारत के बिहार राज्य में पटना से ९० कि.मी. दूर नालंदा शहर में स्थित एक प्राचीन विश्वविद्यालय था। देश विदेश से यहाँ विद्यार्थी अध्ययन के लिए आते थे। आज इसके केवल खंडहर देखे जा सकते हैं। नालन्दा विश्वविद्यालय के अवशेषों की खोज अलेक्जेंडर कनिंघम ने की थी। माना जाता है कि इस विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना ४५०-४७० ई. में गुप्त शासक कुमारगुप्त प्रथम ने की थी।  इस विश्वविद्यालय को इसके बाद आने वाले सभी शासक वंशों का सहयोग मिला। महान सम्राट हर्षवर्द्धन और पाल शासकों का भी संरक्षण मिला। इसे केवल यहां के स्थासनीय शासक वंशों से ही नहीं वरन विदेशी शासकों से भी दान मिला था। इस विश्वविद्यालय का अस्तित्व १२वीं शताब्दी तक बना रहा। इसके ऊपर पहला आघात हुण शासक मिहिरकुल द्वारा किया गया, व ११९९ में में तुर्क आक्रमणकारी बख्तियार खिलजी ने इसको जला कर पूरी तरह समाप्त कर दिया।
इस विश्वविद्यालय के बारे में माना जाता है कि यह विश्व का प्रथम आवासीय विश्वविद्यालय था। इसमें करीब १०,००० छात्र एक साथ विद्या ग्रहण करते थे। यहां २००० शिक्षक छात्रों को पढ़ाते थे। यह विश्वविद्यालय स्थापत्य कला का अदभूत नमूना था। यह पूरा परिसर इस विश्वविद्यालय के बारे में माना जाता है कि यह विश्व का प्रथम आवासीय विश्वविद्यालय था। इसमें करीब १०,००० छात्र एक साथ विद्या ग्रहण करते थे। यहां २००० शिक्षक छात्रों को पढ़ाते थे। यह विश्वविद्यालय स्थापत्य कला का अदभूत नमूना था। यह पूरा परिसर एक विशाल दीवार से घिरा हुआ था तथा इसमें प्रवेश के लिए केवल एक ही मुख्य द्वार था। इस परिसर में आठ विशाल भवन, दस मंदिर, कई प्रार्थना कक्ष तथा अध्ययन कक्ष थे। इसके अलावा यहां सुंदर बगीचे तथा झीलें भी थी। यहां विद्यार्थियों को तीन कठीन परीक्षा स्तरों को उत्तीर्ण करना होता था। यह विश्व का प्रथम ऐसा दृष्टांत है। यहां उनके रहने के लिए ३०० कक्ष बने थे, जिनमें अकेले या एक से अधिक छात्रों के रहने की व्यवस्था थीं। यहां के नौ तल के पुस्तकालय में ३ लाख से अधिक पुस्तकों का अनुपम संग्रह था।[२] इस पुस्तकालय में सभी विषयों से संबंधित पुस्तकें थी। ये पुस्तकें खिलजी के आक्रमण के बाद छः महीनों तक जलती रहीं। इस विश्वविद्यालय में केवल भारत से ही नहीं बल्कि कोरिया, जापान, चीन, तिब्बत, इंडोनेशिया, फारस तथा तुर्की से भी विद्यार्थी शिक्षा ग्रहण करने आते थे। यहां विद्यार्थी विज्ञान, खगोलशास्त्र, चिकित्सा, तर्कशास्त्र, गणित, दर्शनशास्त्र, तथा हिन्दु और बौद्ध धर्मों का अध्ययन करते थे। यहां खगोलशास्त्र अध्ययन के लिए एक विशेष विभाग था। एक प्राचीन श्लोक से ज्ञात होता है, प्रसिद्ध भारतीय गणितज्ञ एवं खगोलज्ञ आर्यभट विश्वविद्यालय के कुलपति भी रहे थे। उनके लिखे जिन तीन ग्रंथों की जानकारी भी उपलब्ध है वे हैं: दशगीतिका, आर्यभट्टीय और तंत्र। ज्ञाता बताते हैं, कि उनका एक अन्य ग्रन्थ आर्यभट्ट सिद्धांत भी था, जिसके आज मात्र ३४ श्लोक ही उपलब्ध हैं। इस ग्रंथ का ७वीं शताब्दी में बहुत उपयोग होता था। यहाँ के तीन बड़े बड़े पुस्तकालय के नाम थे:
    * रत्नसागर पुस्तकालय
    * विद्यासागर पुस्तकालय
    * ग्रंथागार पुस्तकालय
इस विश्वविद्यालय के अवशेष चौदह हेक्टेयर क्षेत्र में मिले हैं। खुदाई में मिली सभी इमारतों का निर्माण लाल पत्थर से किया गया था। यह परिसर दक्षिण से उत्तर की ओर बना हुआ है। मठ या विहार इस परिसर के पूर्व दिशा में व चैत्य (मंदिर) पश्चिम दिशा में बने थे। इस परिसर की सबसे मुख्य इमारत विहार-१ थी। आज में भी यहां दो मंजिला इमारत शेष है। यह इमारत परिसर के मुख्य आंगन के समीप बना हुई है। संभवत: यहां ही शिक्षक अपने छात्रों को संबोधित किया करते थे। इस विहार में एक छोटा सा प्रार्थनालय भी अभी सुरक्षित अवस्था में बचा हुआ है। इस प्रार्थनालय में भगवान बुद्ध की भग्न प्रतिमा बनी है। यहां स्थित मंदिर नं ३ इस परिसर का सबसे बड़ा मंदिर है। इस मंदिर से समूचे क्षेत्र का विहंगम दृश्य देखा जा सकता है। यह मंदिर कई छोटे-बड़े स्तूपों से घिरा हुआ है। इन सभी स्तूपों में भगवान बुद्ध की विभिन्न मुद्राओं में मूर्तियां बनी हुई है।
नालन्दा पुरातात्विक संग्रहालय
विश्वविद्यालय परिसर के विपरीत दिशा में एक छोटा सा पुरातात्विक संग्रहालय बना हुआ है। इस संग्रहालय में खुदाई से प्राप्त अवशेषों को रखा गया है। इसमें भगवान बुद्ध की विभिन्न प्रकार की मूर्तियों का अच्छा संग्रह है। इनके साथ ही बुद्ध की टेराकोटा मूर्तियां और प्रथम शताब्दी के दो मर्तबान भी इस संग्रहालय में रखा हुआ है। इसके अलावा इस संग्रहालय में तांबे की प्लेट, पत्थर पर खुदे अभिलेख, सिक्के, बर्त्तन तथा १२वीं सदी के चावल के जले हुए दाने रखे हुए हैं।
नव नालन्दा महाविहार
यह एक शिक्षण संस्थान है। इसमें पाली साहित्य तथा बौद्ध धर्म की पढ़ाई तथा शोध होती है। यह एक नया स्थापित संस्थान है। इसमें दूसरे देशों के छात्र भी पढ़ाई के लिए यहां आताे हैं।
ह्वेनसांग मेमोरियल हॉल
यह एक नवर्निमित भवन है। यह भवन चीन के महान तीर्थयात्री ह्वेन त्सांग की स्मृति में बनवाया गया है। इसमें ह्वेनसांग से संबंधित वस्तुएं तथा उनकी मूर्ति देखी जा सकती है।
नालन्दा विशविधालय – पुनर्जीवन का प्रयास :

नालंदा विश्वविद्यालय के नाम पर एक नए विश्वविद्यालय की स्थापना  भारत सरकार द्वारा इसके पुनर्जीवन का प्रयास है । प्रसिद्ध नोबल पुरस्कार विजेता साहित्यकार अमर्त्य सेन के अनुसार वर्ष २०१० तक शैक्षणिक सत्र भी आरंभ हो जाएगा। इसके पुनर्जीवन प्रयास में सिंगापुर, चीन, जापान व दक्षिण-कोरिया ने भी सहयोग देने का वादा किया है। इसके ऊपर संसद में विधेयक पारित होने पर इसके भवन का निर्माण भी शुरु हो जाएगा। इसमें ईस्ट एशिया सम्मेलन के १६ देश आर्थिक सहयोग देंगे।

Wednesday, June 10, 2009

अनगिनत इच्छायें – क्या इसका कोई अंत है !!

ऐशिया के कुछ देशो मे बन्दरों को पकडने का तरीका अभूतपूर्व है । बन्दर पकडने वले एक खाली नारियल का खोल लेते हैं , उसमे मीठा भरते हैं और नारियल के नीचे एक इतना बडा छॆद करते हैं जिसमे कि बन्दर का हाथ अन्दर चला जाये लेकिन बाहर न आ पाये । इसके बाद वह नारियल पेड पर रख दिया जाता है ; बंदर नारियल लेने के लिये आता है और फ़ँस के रह जाता है । लेकिन कभी आपने सोचा कि बदर को कौन सी चीज फ़ँसा देती है , सिर्फ़ एक और वह है उसका लालच और प्रलोभन ।  सिर्फ़ बन्दर को अपना हाथ से मीठाई को छोडना भर है , हाथ को ढीला करना है और बस हाथ आसानी से बाहर निकल आयेगा ।  लेकिन कुछ होशियार बदर इससे आसानी से मुक्ति भी पा जाते हैं ।

यही तो हम अपनी असली  जिदंगी मे करते हैं , अनगिनत इच्छाओं को पकडॆ रहते हैं और छोडने का जरा सा भी साहस नही कर पाते । लेकिन कुछ साहसिक लोग कर भी लेते हैं , mindfullness mediatation की यही विशेषता है कि वह उन बाधाओं का दर्शन करती है जिससे हमे दूर रहना है ।


In Asia there is a very clever trap for catching monkeys. People hollow out a coconut, put something sweet in it, and make a hole at the bottom of the coconut just big enough for the monkey to slide its open hand in, but not big enough for the monkey to withdraw its hand as a fist. They attach the coconut to the tree, and the monkey comes along and gets trapped. What keeps the monkey trapped? Only the force of desire, of clinging, of attachment. All the monkey has to do is let go of the sweet, open its hand, slip it out, and be free. But only a very rare monkey will do that. 

~  Joseph Goldstein, Transforming the Mind, Healing the World

Saturday, June 6, 2009

A Film on Buddhist Circuit in Bihar

बिहार को अगर राजनितिक दृष्टिकोण से अलग कर के देखा जाये तो बिहार अपने मे विलक्षण है और बौद्ध धर्म से जुडॆ तीर्थ स्थलो के लिये तो विशेष ही । भारत के कुल बौद्ध स्थलों मे से अधिकंश स्थल बिहार मे ही है । राज्य के प्रमुख बौद्ध स्थलों मे से हैं: है बोध गया, पटना, नालंदा, वैशाली, और राजगीर ।  विशव प्रसिद्ध नालन्दा विशवविधालय भी यही है । कुछ दिन पूर्व बिहार पर्यटन ने “ A Film on Buddhist Circuit in Bihar “ का निर्माण किया था । नीचे इन वीडियो के लिंक है , देखें और बिहार मे बौध स्थलों की सैर करे ।

Monday, June 1, 2009

The Five Hindrances

Moments of Awakening “  is a page created  by Allan O'Marra ; It’s a series of paintings that metaphorically illustrate moments of transcendence on the path to the realization of enlightenment.
The Buddha likened the 5 hindrances to 5 kinds of impurities affecting a bowl of water, preventing one from seeing one's own reflection as it really is & they are :

  • Sensual Desire or Greed
  • Aversion or Ill-will
  • Sloth and Torpor
  • Restlessness and Anxiety
  • Doubt


Sensual Desire or Greed : is like a colorful water surface colored by paint, that interferes with our ability to see clearly.


Aversion or Ill-will  : is like a bubbling, boiling water surface that obscures our ability to see clearly. 


Sloth and Torpor : is like a stagnant water surface that obscures our ability to see clearly.  


Restlessness and Anxiety  : is like a churned up water surface with waves that interferes with our ability to see clearly.


Doubt : is like a muddy water surface that clouds our ability to see clearly.

Source : www.

Monday, May 25, 2009

Buddhist Calendar

Yesterday I came across to this beautiful Buddhist Calendar in Flickr . It was uploaded by an artist h.koppdelany . Enjoy & have fun! & don't forget to say thanks to him for such a beautiful collections .

Wednesday, May 20, 2009

Seeing the Disgusting Aspects of Food disables Craving!


सुभानुपस्सिं विहरन्तं, इन्द्रियेसु असंवुतं।

भोजनम्हि चामत्तञ्‍ञुं, कुसीतं हीनवीरियं।

तं वे पसहति मारो, वातो रुक्खंव दुब्बलं॥

अच्छी लगने वाली चीजों को शुभ ही शुभ देखते विहार करने वाले , इंद्रियों मे असंयत , भोजन की मात्रा के अजानकार , आलसी और उधोगहीन को मार ऐसे सताता है जैसे दुर्बल वृक्ष को मारुत ( पवन )

Just as a storm throws down a weak tree,so does Mara overpower the person who lives for the pursuit of pleasures, who is uncontrolled in one's senses, immoderate in eating, indolent and dissipated.  ……Dhammapada

The Blessed Buddha once said:
The experience of loathsome disgust with all food, Bhikkhus & friends,developed and frequently repeated, brings a high reward and blessing, and has the Deathless Dimension as its basis & the very nearby goal. Whoever, Bhikkhus & friends, often trains perceiving disgust with food, his mind shrinks and turns away from voracious greed, he is neither attracted, captivated or tempted, but feels only equanimity or disgust! Just as, Bhikkhus & friends, a cock's feather or a piece of bowstring, thrown into the fire, shrinks up, twists, rolls itself up, does not stretch out again: just so in one who often entertains the experience of disgust
in all food, the mind shrinks back from greediness, turns away from it, is repulsed by food, is not attracted; and equanimity or disgust arises!

Source: The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha. Anguttara Nikāya AN 7:46

The experience of Disgust in Food includes:
Seeing it brings the danger and tribulation of having a fragile and sore body.
Seeing what it becomes like when chewed and sunk: Like dogs vomit!
Seeing that getting it daily costs one much pain of seeking, work & cleaning.
Seeing that it is turned into secretions as bile, pus, blood, snot, slime & spit.
Seeing that it undigested stays as vomit in the foul receptacle of the stomach.
Seeing that it when digested is turned into diarrheic brown fluid in the intestines.
Seeing that it causes a lifelong excretion of stinking messy excrement & urine.
Seeing the side effects of obesity, diabetes, cardiac failure and hypertension.

Source: Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga XI 5th century AC.

Monday, March 23, 2009

Impermanence makes all vanish...

The Blessed Buddha once spoke on these 4 invariable & fixed laws:
There are 4 things, Bhikkhus & Friends, which nobody can change,
neither recluse, nor priest, nor god, nor devil, nor anyone at all
in this or any other universe. What are these 4 things?
1: That what is subject to decay may not decay...
2: That what is subject to sickness may not fall sick...
3: That what is subject to death may not die... &
4: That those evil, immoral, impure, terrible, and pain-producing 
actions, which ever and again lead to rebirth, ageing, & death,
may not bring results, may not produce their inviolable effects...
These four things, Bhikkhus & Friends, neither recluse, priest,
divine being, neither god, nor devil, nor anyone in this or any
other multiverse can stop...

Tuesday, February 17, 2009

धम्मपद- यमकवग्गो ( The Dhaamapada -Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 13-14)

Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 13-14

                             १. यमकवग्गो- श्लोक १३-१४

Courtesy : Illustrated Dhammapda, , VRI &




यथा अगारं दुच्छन्‍नं, वुट्ठी समतिविज्झति।

एवं अभावितं चित्तं, रागो समतिविज्झति॥

जैसे बिना छ्त्त के घर मे पानी प्रवेश कर जाता है वैसे ही संस्कार विहीन चित्त मे राग प्रवेश कर जाता है ।

Just as the rain breaks through an ill-thatched house, even so passion penetrates an undeveloped mind.



यथा अगारं सुछन्‍नं, वुट्ठी न समतिविज्झति।

एवं सुभावितं चित्तं, रागो न समतिविज्झति॥

जैसे अच्छी तरह से ढके हुये घर मे पानी प्रवेश नही कर सकता वैसे ही संस्कारित चित्त मे राग प्रवेश नही कर पाता है ।

Just as rain does not break through a well-thatched house, even so passion never
penetrates a well-developed mind

धम्मपद- यमकवग्गो ( The Dhaamapada -Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 11-12)

Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 11-12

                             १. यमकवग्गो- श्लोक ११-१२

Courtesy : Illustrated Dhammapda, , VRI &



असारे सारमतिनो, सारे चासारदस्सिनो।

ते सारं नाधिगच्छन्ति, मिच्छासङ्कप्पगोचरा॥

जो नि:सार को सार और सार को नि:सार समझते हैं , ऐसे गलत चिंतन मे लगे हुये व्यक्तियों को सार नही प्राप्त होता है ।

Those who mistake the unessential to
be essential and the essential to be unessential
dwelling in wrong thoughts, never arrive at the essential



सारञ्‍च सारतो ञत्वा, असारञ्‍च असारतो।

ते सारं अधिगच्छन्ति, सम्मासङ्कप्पगोचरा॥

सार को सार और नि:सार को सार जानकर शुद्ध चितंन वाले व्यक्ति सार को प्राप्त होते हैं ।

Those who know the essential to be
essential and the unessential to be unessential,
dwelling in right thoughts, arrive at the essential

Thursday, February 5, 2009

Open Space

मुक्त आकाश की परिकल्पना क्या हम अपने साथ नही कर सकते ? क्यूं हम इतनी अधिक पीडओं से गुजरते हैं , उनको अपनी जिंदगी का अह्म हिस्सा बना लेते हैं और फ़िर उनको छोडना हमारे लिये नामुनिकन सा हो जाता है । मन जिस को एक तरफ़ अस्वीकृत करता है उसकी न सुनते हुये हम उन कडवाहटॊ को न सिर्फ़ अपनाते हैं बल्कि अपने को हानि भी पहुँचाते रहते हैं ।

लेकिन इस चाल को नम्रता और अभ्यास से मुक्त भी कर सकते हैं । बजाय इसके कि इन कड्वाहटॊं  के  विरुद्ध संधर्ष करें हम जागृत होकर इन परिस्थितियों से बखूबी निजात पा सकते हैं क्योंकि हर इन्सान मे मुक्त आकाश की जगह अवशय है , बस देर है  जागृत होकर  उसको    तलाशने   की ।

It is never too late for any of us to look at our minds. We can always sit down and allow the space for anything to arise. Sometimes we have a shocking experience of ourselves. Sometimes we try to hide. Sometimes we have a surprising experience of ourselves. Often we get carried away. Without judging, without buying into likes and dislikes, we can always encourage ourselves to just be here again and again and again.

The painful thing is that when we buy into disapproval, we are practicing disapproval. When we buy into harshness, we are practicing harshness. The more we do it, the stronger these qualities become. How sad it is that we become so expert at causing harm to ourselves and others.

The trick then is to practice gentleness and letting go. We can learn to meet whatever arises with curiosity and not make it such a big deal. Instead of struggling against the force of confusion, we could meet it and relax. When we do that, we gradually discover that clarity is always there. In the middle of the worst scenario of the worst person in the world, in the midst of heavy dialogue with ourselves, open space is always there.

Pema Chodron, from "When Things Fall Apart"

Source: Mindfulness Meditation Course 

Tuesday, February 3, 2009

धम्मपद- यमकवग्गो ( The Dhammapada -Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 9-10)

Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 9-10

                             १. यमकवग्गो- छंद ९-१०

Courtesy : for images -Illustrated Dhammapda

                     for Hindi & Devnagiri scripts-Tipitika.orgVRI

                    for English


अनिक्‍कसावो कासावं, यो वत्थं परिदहिस्सति।

अपेतो दमसच्‍चेन, न सो कासावमरहति॥

जिसने कषायों ( चित्तमलों ) का परित्याग नहीं किया है पर कषाय वस्त्र धारण किये है वह संयम और सत्य से परे है । वह कषाय वस्त्र धारण करने का अधिकारी नही है ।

Whoever being depraved, devoid of self-control
and truthfulness, should don the monk's yellow
robe, that person surely is not worthy of the robe


यो च वन्तकसावस्स, सीलेसु सुसमाहितो।

उपेतो दमसच्‍चेन, स वे कासावमरहति॥

जिसने कषायों को निकाल बाहर किया है , शीलों मे प्रतिष्ठित है, संयम और सत्य से युक्त है , वह नि:संदेह काषाय वस्त्र धारण करने का अधिकारी है ।

But whoever is purged of depravity, well
established in virtues and filled with self-control
and truthfulness, that person indeed is worthy of the robe

Thursday, January 29, 2009

धम्मपद- यमकवग्गो ( The Dhammapada -Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 7-8)


                              Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 7-8

                               १. यमकवग्गो- छंद ७-८



सुभानुपस्सिं विहरन्तं, इन्द्रियेसु असंवुतं।

भोजनम्हि चामत्तञ्‍ञुं, कुसीतं हीनवीरियं।

तं वे पसहति मारो, वातो रुक्खंव दुब्बलं॥

अच्छी लगने वाली चीजों को शुभ ही शुभ देखते विहार करने वाले , इंद्रियों मे असंयत , भोजन की मात्रा के अजानकार , आलसी और उधोगहीन को मार ऐसे सताता है जैसे दुर्बल वृक्ष को मारुत ( पवन )

Just as a storm throws down a weak tree,so does Mara overpower the person who lives for the pursuit of pleasures, who is uncontrolled in one's senses, immoderate in eating, indolent and dissipated.



असुभानुपस्सिं विहरन्तं, इन्द्रियेसु सुसंवुतं।

भोजनम्हि च मत्तञ्‍ञुं, सद्धं आरद्धवीरियं।

तं वे नप्पसहति मारो, वातो सेलंव पब्बतं॥

अशुभ को अशुभ जानकर साधना करने वाले , इंद्रियों में सुयंत, भोजन की मात्रा के जानकार , श्रद्धावान और उधोगरत को मार उसी प्रकार डिगा नही सकता जैसे वायु शैल पर्वत को ।

Just as a storm cannot throw down a rocky
mountain, so Mara can never overpower the person
who lives meditating on the impurities, who is
controlled in one's senses, moderate in eating, and
filled with faith and earnest effort.

Tuesday, January 27, 2009

अब तिपिटक आफ़लाइन भी उपलब्ध (New Desktop client for the Pali Tipitaka)


तिपिटक  को आन लाइन और आफ़लाइन दोनो ही तरह से पढ सकते हैं । आनलाइन देखने के लिये यहाँ किल्क करें और कम्पयूटर पर आफ़लाइन पढने के लिये यहाँ पर किल्क करके डाउनलोड करें ।

Now the Pāli Tipitaka is  available online & offline in various scripts. Click here for instructions on downloading and installing the desktop version for the offline mode.

Sunday, January 25, 2009

धम्मपद- यमकवग्गो ( The Dhaamapada -Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 5-6 )

Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 5-6

                             १. यमकवग्गो- छंद ५-६


न हि वेरेन वेरानि, सम्मन्तीध कुदाचनं।

अवेरेन च सम्मन्ति, एस धम्मो सनन्तनो॥

इस लोक मे कभी भी वैर से वैर शांत नहीं होता , बल्कि अवैर से शांत होता है । यही सनातन धर्म है ।

Hatred is never appeased by hatred in this world; by non-hatred alone is hatred appeased. This is an Eternal Law.



परे च न विजानन्ति, मयमेत्थ यमामसे।

ये च तत्थ विजानन्ति, ततो सम्मन्ति मेधगा॥

अनाडी लोग नही जानते कि हम इस संसार से जाने वाले हैं । जो इसे जान लेते हैं उनके झगडॆ शांत हो जाते हैं ।

There are those who do not realize that one day we all must die, but those who realize this settle their quarrels.

Thursday, January 22, 2009

धम्मपद- यमकवग्गो ( The Dhaamapada -Chapter One -- The Pairs)

Chapter One -- The Pairs-verses 3-4

                             १. यमकवग्गो- छंद-३-४


अक्‍कोच्छि मं अवधि मं, अजिनि [अजिनी (?)] मं अहासि मे।

ये च तं उपनय्हन्ति, वेरं तेसं न सम्मति॥

’मुझे कोसा ’ मुझे मारा’ ’मुझे हराया’ जो मन मे ऐसी गाँठॆं बाँधतें रहते हैं , उनका वैर शांत नही होता है ।

"He abused me, he struck me, he overpowered me, he robbed me"--those who harbour such thoughts do not still their hatred.



अक्‍कोच्छि मं अवधि मं, अजिनि मं अहासि मे।

ये च तं नुपनय्हन्ति, वेरं तेसूपसम्मति॥

’मुझे कोसा ’ मुझे मारा’ ’मुझे हराया’ जो मन मे ऐसी गाँठॆं नहीं बाँधतें हैं , उनका वैर शांत हो जाता है ।

"He abused me, he struck me, he overpowered
me, he robbed me"--those who do not harbour
such thoughts still their hatred.

वर्षा का फ़ार्मूला (The RAIN Formula )


audiodharmacourse द्वारा संचालित mindfullness meditation course का यह तीसरा सप्ताह है । आरम्भ मे तो मैने इसको गम्भीरता से  नही लिया लेकिन नोना ओलीवा  द्वारा भेजे कई ई मेल से इसकी गम्भीरता को समझना ही पडा । आज के सुविचार हैं : वर्षा का फ़ार्मूला यानि Rain Formulae

कभी-२ उद्देलित करती हुई परिस्थितयाँ और भावनायें हम पर भारी पड जाती हैं । इन परिस्थितयाँ मे वर्षा का फ़ार्मूला बहुत ही सहायक हो सकता है । अधिकतर परिस्थितयों मे तो पहला कदम ही मददगार साबित होता है । वह कैसे , इसको समझें :

R:  Recognize it. Name it.

       पहचानो और इसे एक नाम दो ।

A:  Accept it.

       इसे स्वीकार करो ।

I:   Investigate it, be curious.  What is it like, right now, this moment, in the body, heart and mind?

      इसे उत्सुकता से तफ़्तीश करो कि यह कैसा है, क्या है जो  हर      पल मन और शरीर को प्रभावित करता रहता है ।

N: Non-identification (Not-me).  This feeling is just a passing process that comes and goes, it’s not who I am.

     और सबसे आवशयक , मै नही का बोध रखो । यह परिस्थितयाँ आती और जाती रहेगी ; यह एक गुजरती हुई प्रक्रिया है और इसमे मेरा अस्तित्व और रोल नगण्य है ।

Monday, January 19, 2009

धम्मपद- भाग १- यमकवग्गो ( The Dhammapada- Chapter One -- The Pairs )

                                  भाग-१. यमकवग्गो


मनोपुब्बङ्गमा धम्मा, मनोसेट्ठा मनोमया।

मनसा चे पदुट्ठेन, भासति वा करोति वा।

ततो नं दुक्खमन्वेति, चक्‍कंव वहतो पदं॥

मन सभी प्रवॄतियों का अगुआ है , मन ही प्रधान है , सभी धर्म मनोनय हैं । जब कोई व्यक्ति अपने मन को मैला करके कोई वाणी बोलता है , अथवा शरीर से कोई कर्म करता है तो दु:ख उसके पीछे ऐसे हो लेता है , जैसे गाडी के चक्के बैल के पीछे हो लेते हैं ।

Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind-wrought. If with an impure mind one speaks or acts, suffering follows one like the wheel that follows the foot of the ox.


मनोपुब्बङ्गमा धम्मा, मनोसेट्ठा मनोमया।

मनसा चे पसन्‍नेन, भासति वा करोति वा।

ततो नं सुखमन्वेति, छायाव अनपायिनी [अनुपायिनी (क॰)]॥

 मन सभी प्रवॄतियों का अगुआ है , मन ही प्रधान है , सभी धर्म मनोनय हैं । जब कोई व्यक्ति अपने मन को उजला रख कर कोई वाणी बोलता है , अथवा शरीर से कोई ऐसा कर्म करता है तब सुख उसके पीछॆ ऐसे हो लेता है जैसे कभी संग न छॊडने वाली छाया संग-२ चलने लगती है ।

Mind precedes all mental states. Mind is their chief; they are all mind wrought. If with a pure mind one speaks or acts, happiness follows one like one's never-departing shadow.


Sunday, January 18, 2009

बदलती हुई दलाई लामा की सोच !!

: दैनिक हिन्दुस्तान
दलाई लामा की सोच मे अब बदलाव के संकेत दिखने लगे हैं । हमेशा अंहिसा की वकालत करने वाले दलाई लामा मानते हैं कि आंतकियों की सोच को सिर्फ़ और सिर्फ़ हिंसा से ही कुचला जा सकता है ।

New Delhi: The Dalai Lama, a lifelong champion of non-violence candidly stated that terrorism cannot be tackled by applying the principle of ahimsa because the minds of terrorists are closed.

"It is difficult to deal with terrorism through non-violence," the Tibetan spiritual leader said delivering the Madhavrao Scindia Memorial Lecture here.

He termed terrorism as the worst kind of violence which is not carried by a few mad people but by those who are very brilliant and educated.

"They (terrorists) are very brilliant and educated...but a strong ill feeling is bred in them. Their minds are closed," the Dalai Lama said.

He said the only way to tackle terrorism is through prevention.

The head of the Tibetan government-in-exile left the audience stunned when he said "I love President George W Bush." He went on to add how he and the US President instantly struck a chord in their first meeting unlike politicians who take a while to develop close ties.

"I told him 'I love you but some of your policies I oppose'," said the spiritual leader to a loud round of applause from the audience which included Rahul and Priyanka Gandhi, Election Commissioner Navin Chawla and several ministers, diplomats and artistes.

Saturday, January 17, 2009

चार आर्य सत्य और अष्टागिंक मार्ग

चार आर्य सत्य

१. दु:ख है।

२. दु:ख का कारण है ।

३. दु:ख का निदान है ।

४. वह मार्ग है , जिससे दु:ख का निदान होता है ।

अष्टागिंक मार्ग

१. सम्यक दृष्टि ( अन्धविशवास तथा भ्रम से रहित )  ।

२. सम्यक संकल्प (उच्च तथा बुद्दियुक्त )  ।

३. सम्यक वचन ( नम्र , उन्मुक्त , सत्यनिष्ठ )  ।

४. सम्यक कर्मान्त ( शानितपूर्ण , निष्ठापूर्ण ,पवित्र )  ।

५. सम्यक आजीव ( किसी भी प्राणी को आघात या हानि न पहुँचाना )  ।

६. सम्यक व्यायाम ( आत्म-प्रशिक्षण एवं आत्मनिग्रह हेतु )  ।

७. सम्यक स्मृति ( सक्रिय सचेत मन )  ।

८. सम्यक समाधि ( जीवन की यथार्थता पर गहन ध्यान ) ।

'तिपिटक ' बुद्ध की वाणी
















समूची बुद्ध वाणी को ’ तिपिटक ’ के नाम से जाना जाता है । तिपिटक के तीन बडे विभाजन हैं : १) विनयपिटक २) सुत्तपिटक तथा अभिधम्मपिटक । इनमें से सुत्तपिटक के अंतर्गत पाँच निकाय हैं १) दीघनिकाय २ ) मज्झिमनिकाय ३)संयुत्तनिकाय ४) अङ्गुत्तरनिकाय और ५) खुद्दकनिकाय ।’ खुद्दकनिकाय ’ के अंतर्गत १९ ग्रंथ हैं । इन १९ ग्रंथों मे से एक है “ धम्मपद्ध “ । “ धम्मपद्ध “ यानि धर्म का मार्ग जिसमें बुद्ध के धर्म संबधी सूक्त या कथन संग्रुहीत हैं । “ धम्मपद्ध “ बौद्ध धर्म की गीता है । इसमे कुल ४२३ गाथायें हैं जो गौतम बुद्ध ने बुद्ध्त्व प्राप्ति के समय से लेकर परिनिर्वाण काल तक उपदेश क्रम मे समय-२ पर कही गयी हैं ।यह सूक्त बुद्ध द्वारा विभिन्न-३ स्थानों मे जैसे जेतवन , वेणुवन , श्र्रावस्ती , वेसाली , गिज्झकूट इत्यादि में भिक्षुओं , थेरों और थेरियों को कहे गये हैं ।

Wednesday, January 7, 2009

Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana The Six Dhamma Councils

Courtesy :

The authentic teachings of Gotama the Buddha have been preserved and handed down to us and are to be found in the Tipiṭaka. The Pāli word, Tipiṭaka', literally means `the three baskets' (ti=three + piṭaka=collections of scriptures). All of the Buddha's teachings were divided into three parts.
1.The first part is known as the Vinaya Piṭaka and it contains all the rules which Buddha laid down for monks and nuns.
2.The second part is called the Suttaṅta Piṭaka and it contains the Discourses.
3.The third part is known as the Abhidhamma Piṭaka and comprises the psycho-ethical teachings of the Buddha.
It is known, that whenever the Buddha gave a discourse to his ordained disciples or lay-followers or prescribed a monastic rule in the course of his forty-five year ministry, those of his devoted and learned monks, then present would immediately commit his teachings word for word to memory. Thus the Buddha's words were preserved accurately and were in due course passed down orally from teacher to pupil. Some of the monks who had heard the Buddha preach in person were Arahants, and so by definition, `pure ones' free from passion, ill-will and delusion and therefore, was without doubt capable of retaining, perfectly the Buddha's words. Thus they ensured that the Buddha's teachings would be preserved faithfully for posterity.
Even those devoted monks who had not yet attained Arahantahood but had reached the first three stages of sainthood and had powerful, retentive memories could also call to mind word for word what the Buddha had preached and so could be worthy custodians of the Buddha's teachings. One such monk was Ānanda, the chosen attendant and constant companion of the Buddha during the last twenty-five years of the his life. Ānanda was highly intelligent and gifted with the ability to remember whatever he had heard. Indeed, it was his express wish that the Buddha always relate all of his discourses to him and although he was not yet an Arahanta he deliberately committed to memory word for word all the Buddha's sermons with which he exhorted monks, nuns and his lay followers. The combined efforts of these gifted and devoted monks made it possible for the Dhamma and Vinaya, as taught by the Buddha to be preserved in its original state.
The Pāli Tipiṭaka and its allied literature exists as a result of the Buddha's discovery of the noble and liberating path of the pure Dhamma. This path enables all those who follow it to lead a peaceful and happy life. Indeed, in this day and age we are fortunate to have the authentic teachings of the Buddha preserved for future generations through the conscientious and concerted efforts of his ordained disciples down through the ages. The Buddha had said to his disciples that when he was no longer amongst them, that it was essential that the Saṅgha should come together for the purpose of collectively reciting the Dhamma, precisely as he had taught it. In compliance with this instruction the first Elders duly called a council and systematically ordered all the Buddha's discourses and monastic rules and then faithfully recited them word for word in concert.
The teachings contained in the Tipiṭaka are also known as the Doctrine of the Elders [Theravāda]. These discourses number several hundred and have always been recited word for word ever since the First Council was convened. Subsequently, more Councils have been called for a number of reasons but at every one of them the entire body of the Buddha's teaching has always been recited by the Saṅgha participants, in concert and word for word. The first council took place three months after the Buddha's attainment of Mahāparinibbāṇa and was followed by five more, two of which were convened in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. These collective recitations which were performed by the monks at all these Dhamma Councils are known as the `Dhamma Saṅgītis', the Dhamma Recitations. They are so designated because of the precedent set at the First Dhamma Council, when all the Teachings were recited first by an Elder of the Saṅgha and then chanted once again in chorus by all of the monks attending the assembly. The recitation was judged to have been authentic, when and only when, it had been approved unanimously by the members of the Council. What follows is a brief history of the Six Councils.

The First Council

King Ajātasattu sponsored the First Council. It was convened in 544 B.C. in the Sattapaāāī Cave situated outside Rājagaha three months after the Buddha had passed away. A detailed account of this historic meeting can be found in the Cūllavagga of the Vinaya Piṭaka. According to this record the incident which prompted the Elder Mahākassapa to call this meeting was his hearing a disparaging remark about the strict rule of life for monks. This is what happened. The monk Subhadda, a former barber, who had ordained late in life, upon hearing that the Buddha had expired, voiced his resentment at having to abide by all the rules for monks laid down by the Buddha. Many monks lamented the passing of the Buddha and were deeply grieved. However, the Elder Mahākassapa heard Subhadda say: ``Enough your Reverences, do not grieve, do not lament. We are well rid of this great recluse (the Buddha). We were tormented when he said, `this is allowable to you, this is not allowable to you' but now we will be able to do as we like and we will not have to do what we do not like''. Mahākassapa was alarmed by his remark and feared that the Dhamma and the Vinaya might be corrupted and not survive intact if other monks were to behave like Subhadda and interpret the Dhamma and the Vinaya rules as they pleased. To avoid this he decided that the Dhamma must be preserved and protected. To this end after gaining the Saṅgha's approval he called to council five hundred Arahants. Ānanda was to be included in this provided he attained Arahanthood by the time the council convened. With the Elder Mahākassapa presiding, the five-hundred Arahant monks met in council during the rainy season. The first thing Mahākassapa did was to question the foremost expert on the Vinaya of the day, Venerable Upāli on particulars of the monastic rule. This monk was well qualified for the task as the Buddha had taught him the whole of the Vinaya himself. First of all the Elder Mahākassapa asked him specifically about the ruling on the first offense [pārājika], with regard to the subject, the occasion, the individual introduced, the proclamation, the repetition of the proclamation, the offense and the case of non-offense. Upāli gave knowledgeable and adequate answers and his remarks met with the unanimous approval of the presiding Saṅgha. Thus the Vinaya was formally approved.
The Elder Mahākassapa then turned his attention to Ānanda in virtue of his reputable expertise in all matters connected with the Dhamma. Happily, the night before the Council was to meet, Ānanda had attained Arahantship and joined the Council. The Elder Mahākassapa, therefore, was able to question him at length with complete confidence about the Dhamma with specific reference to the Buddha's sermons. This interrogation on the Dhamma sought to verify the place where all the discourses were first preached and the person to whom they had been addressed. Ānanda, aided by his word-perfect memory was able to answer accurately and so the Discourses met with the unanimous approval of the Saṅgha. The First Council also gave its official seal of approval for the closure of the chapter on the minor and lesser rules, and approval for their observance. It took the monks seven months to recite the whole of the Vinaya and the Dhamma and those monks sufficiently endowed with good memories retained all that had been recited. This historic first council came to be known as the Paācasatika because five-hundred fully enlightened Arahants had taken part in it.

The Second Council

The Second Council was called one hundred years after the Buddha's Parinibbāṇa in order to settle a serious dispute over the `ten points'. This is a reference to some monks breaking of ten minor rules. they were given to:
    1. Storing salt in a horn.
    2. Eating after midday.
    3. Eating once and then going again to a village for alms.
    4. Holding the Uposatha Ceremony with monks dwelling in the same locality.
    5. Carrying out official acts when the assembly was incomplete.
    6. Following a certain practice because it was done by one's tutor or teacher.
    7. Eating sour milk after one had his midday meal.
    8. Consuming strong drink before it had been fermented.
    9. Using a rug which was not the proper size.
    10. Using gold and silver.
Their misdeeds became an issue and caused a major controversy as breaking these rules was thought to contradict the Buddha's original teachings. King Kāḷāsoka was the Second Council's patron and the meeting took place at Vesāli due to the following circumstances. One day, whilst visiting the Mahāvana Grove at Veāsli, the Elder Yasa came to know that a large group of monks known as the Vajjians were infringing the rule which prohibited monk's accepting gold and silver by openly asking for it from their lay devotees. He immediately criticized their behavior and their response was to offer him a share of their illegal gains in the hope that he would be won over. The Elder Yasa, however declined and scorned their behavior. The monks immediately sued him with a formal action of reconciliation, accusing him of having blamed their lay devotees. The Elder Yasa accordingly reconciled himself with the lay devotees, but at the same time, convinced them that the Vijjian monks had done wrong by quoting the Buddha's pronouncement on the prohibition against accepting or soliciting for gold and silver. The laymen immediately expressed their support for the Elder Yasa and declared the Vajjian monks to the wrong-doers and heretics, saying ``the Elder Yasa alone is the real monk and Sākyan son. All the others are not monks, not Sākyan sons''.
The Stubborn and unrepentant Vajjian monks then moved to suspend the Venerable Yasa Thera without the approval of the rest of the Saṅgha when they came to know of the outcome of his meeting with their lay devotees. The Elder Yasa, however escaped their censure and went in search of support from monks elsewhere, who upheld his orthodox views on the Vinaya. Sixty forest dwelling monks from Pāvā and eighty monks from the southern regions of Avanti who were of the same view, offered to help him to check the corruption of the Vinaya. Together they decided to go to Soreyya to consult the Venerable Revata as he was a highly revered monk and an expert in the Dhamma and the Vinaya. As soon as the Vajjian monks came to know this they also sought the Venerable Revata's support by offering him the four requisites which he promptly refused. These monks then sought to use the same means to win over the Venerable Revata's attendant, the Venerable Uttara. At first he too, rightly declined their offer but they craftily persuaded him to accept their offer, saying that when the requisites meant for the Buddha were not accepted by him, Ānanda would be asked to accept them and would often agree to do so. Uttara changed his mind and accepted the requisites. Urged on by them he then agreed to go and persuade the Venerable Revata to declare that the Vajjian monks were indeed speakers of the Truth and upholders of the Dhamma. The Venerable Revata saw through their ruse and refused to support them. He then dismissed Uttara. In order to settle the matter once and for all, the Venerable Revata advised that a council should be called at Vāḷikārāma with himself asking questions on the ten offenses of the most senior of the Elders of the day, the Thera Sabbjakāmi. Once his opinion was given it was to be heard by a committee of eight monks, and its validity decided by their vote. The eight monks called to judge the matter were the Venerables Sabbakāmi, saḷha, Khujjasobhita and Vāsabhagāmika, from the East and four monks from the West, the Venerables Revata, Sambhuta-Sāṇavāsī, Yasa and Sumana. They thoroughly debated the matter with Revata as the questioner and sabbakāmī answering his questions. After the debate was heard the eight monks decided against the Vajjian monks and their verdict was announced to the assembly. Afterwards seven-hundred monks recited the Dhamma and Vinaya and this recital came to be known as the Sattasatī because seven-hundred monks had taken part in it. This historic council is also called, the Yasatthera Sangīti because of the major role the Elder Yasa played in it and his zeal for safeguarding the Vinaya. The Vajjian monks categorically refused to accept the Council's decision and in defiance called a council of there own which was called the Mahāsaṅgiti.

The Third Council

The Third Council was held primarily to rid the Saṅgha of corruption and bogus monks who held heretical views. The Council was convened in 326 B.C. At Asokārāma in Paṭaliputta under the patronage of Emperor Asoka. It was presided over by the Elder Moggaliputta Tissa and one thousand monks participated in this Council. Tradition has it that Asoka had won his throne through shedding the blood of all his father's son's save his own brother, Tissa Kumāra who eventually got ordained and achieved Arahantship.
Asoka was crowned in the two hundred and eighteenth year after the Buddha's Mahaparinibbāna. At first he paid only token homage to the Dhamma and the Saṅgha and also supported members of other religious sects as his father had done before him. However, all this changed when he met the pious novice-monk Nigrodha who preached him the Appamāda-vagga. Thereafter he ceased supporting other religious groups and his interest in and devotion to the Dhamma deepened. He used his enormous wealth to build, it is said, eighty-four thousand pagodas and vihāras and to lavishly support the Bhikkhus with the four requisites. His son Mahinda and his daughter Saṅghamittā were ordained and admitted to the Saṅgha. Eventually, his generosity was to cause serious problems within the Saṅgha. In time the order was infiltrated by many unworthy men, holding heretical views and who were attracted to the order because of the Emperor's generous support and costly offerings of food, clothing, shelter and medicine. Large numbers of faithless, greedy men espousing wrong views tried to join the order but were deemed unfit for ordination. Despite this they seized the chance to exploit the Emperor's generosity for their own ends and donned robes and joined the order without having been ordained properly. Consequently, respect for the Saṅgha diminished. When this came to light some of the genuine monks refused to hold the prescribed purification or Uposatha ceremony in the company of the corrupt, heretical monks.
When the Emperor heard about this he sought to rectify the situation and dispatched one of his ministers to the monks with the command that they perform the ceremony. However, the Emperor had given the minister no specific orders as to what means were to be used to carry out his command. The monks refused to obey and hold the ceremony in the company of their false and `thieving' companions [theyyasinivāsaka]. In desperation the angry minister advanced down the line of seated monks and drawing his sword, beheaded all of them one after the other until he came to the King's brother, Tissa who had been ordained. The horrified minister stopped the slaughter and fled the hall and reported back to the Emperor Asoka was deeply grieved and upset by what had happened and blamed himself for the killings. He sought Thera Moggaliputta Tissa's counsel. He proposed that the heretical monks be expelled from the order and a third Council be convened immediately. So it was that in the seventeenth year of the Emperor's reign the Third Council was called. Thera Moggaliputta Tissa headed the proceedings and chose one thousand monks from the sixty thousand participants for the traditional recitation of the Dhamma and the Vinaya, which went on for nine months. The Emperor, himself questioned monks from a number of monasteries about the teachings of the Buddha. Those who held wrong views were exposed and expelled from the Saṅgha immediately. In this way the Bhikkhu Saṅgha was purged of heretics and bogus bhikkhus.
This council achieved a number of other important things as well. The Elder Moggaliputta Tissa, in order to refute a number of heresies and ensure the Dhamma was kept pure, complied a book during the council called the Kathāvatthu. This book consists of twenty-three chapters, and is a collection of discussion (kathā) and refutations of the heretical views held by various sects on matters philosophical. It is the fifth of the seven books of the Abhidhamma Piṭaka. The members of the Council also gave a royal seal of approval to the doctrine of the Buddha, naming it the Vibhajjavāda, the Doctrine of Analysis. It is identical with the approved Theravāda doctrine. One of the most significant achievements of this Dhamma assembly and one which was to bear fruit for centuries to come, was the Emperor's sending forth of monks, well versed in the Buddha's Dhamma and Vinaya who could recite all of it by heart, to teach it in nine different countries. These Dhammadūta monks included the Venerable Majjhantika Thera who went to Kashmir and Gandhāra. He was asked to preach the Dhamma and establish an order of monks there. The Venerable Mahādeva was sent to Mahinsakamaṇḍaḷa (modern Mysore) and the Venerable Rakkhita Thera was dispatched to Vanavāsī (northern Kanara in the south of India.) The Venerable Yonaka Dhammarakkhita Thera was sent to Upper Aparantaka (northern Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kutch and Sindh].
The Venerable Mahārakkhita Thera went to Yonaka-loka (the land of the lonians, Bactrians and the Greeks.) The Venerable Majjhima Thera went to Himavanta (the place adjoining the Himalayas.) The Venerable Soṇa and the Venerable Uttara were sent to Suvaṇṇabhūmi [now Myanmar]. The Venerable Mahinda Thera, The Venerable Ittiya Thera, the Venerable Uttiya Thera, the Venerable Sambala Thera and the Venerable Bhaddasāla Thera were sent to Tambapaṇṇi (now Sri Lanka). The Dhamma missions of these monks succeeded and bore great fruits in the course of time and went a long way in ennobling the peoples of these lands with the gift of the Dhamma and influencing their civilizations and cultures.
With the spread of Dhamma through the words of the Buddha, in due course India came to be known as Visvaguru, the teacher of the world.

The Fourth Council

The Fourth Council was held in Tambapaṇṇi [Sri Lanka] in 29 B.C. under the patronage of King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi. The main reason for its convening was the realization that is was now not possible for the majority of monks to retain the entire Tipiṭaka in their memories as had been the case formerly for the Venerable Mahinda and those who followed him soon after. Therefore, as the art of writing had, by this time developed substantially, it was thought expedient and necessary to have the entire body of the Buddha's teaching written down. King Vaṭṭagāmaṇi supported the monk's idea and a council was held specifically to reduce the Tipiṭaka in its entirety to writing. Therefore, so that the genuine Dhamma might be lastingly preserved, the Venerable Mahārakhita and five hundred monks recited the words of the Buddha and then wrote them down on palm leaves. This remarkable project took place in a cave called, the Āloka lena, situated in the cleft of an ancient landslip near what is now Matale. Thus the aim of the Council was achieved and the preservation in writing of the authentic Dhamma was ensured. Later, in the Eighteenth Century, King Vijayarājasīha had images of the Buddha created in this cave.

The Fifth Council

The Fifth Council took place in Māndalay, Burma now known as Myanmar in 1871 A.D. in the reign of King Mindon. The chief objective of this meeting was to recite all the teachings of the Buddha and examine them in minute detail to see if any of them had been altered, distorted or dropped. It was presided over by three Elders, the Venerable Mahāthera Jāgarābhivaṃsa, the Venerable Narindābhidhaja, and the Venerable Mahāthera Sumaṅgalasāmi in the company of some two thousand four hundred monks (2,400). Their joint Dhamma recitation lasted for five months. It was also the work of this council to cause the entire Tipiṭaka to be inscribed for posterity on seven hundred and twenty-nine marble slabs in the Myanmar script after its recitation had been completed and unanimously approved. This monumental task was done by some two thousand four hundred erudite monks and many skilled craftsmen who upon completion of each slab had them housed in beautiful miniature `piṭaka' pagodas on a special site in the grounds of King Mindon's Kuthodaw Pagoda at the foot of Māndalay Hill where this so called `largest book in the world', stands to this day.

The Sixth Council

The Sixth Council was called at Kaba Aye in Yangon, formerly Rangoon in 1954, eighty-three years after the fifth one was held in Mandalay. It was sponsored by the Burmese Government led by the Prime Minister, the Honorable U Nu. He authorized the construction of the Mahā Pāsāna Gūhā, the great cave that was built from the ground up, to serve as the gathering place much like India's Sattapānni Cave--the site of the first Dhamma Council. Upon its completion, the Council met on the 17th of May, 1954. As in the case of the preceding councils, its first objective was to affirm and preserve the genuine Dhamma and Vinaya. However it was unique in so far as the monks who took part in it came from eight countries. These two thousand five hundred learned Theravāda monks came from Myanmar, Cambodia, India, Laos, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. The late Venerable Mahāsi Sayadaw was appointed the noble task of asking the required questions about the Dhamma of the Venerable Bhadanta Vicittasārābhivaṃsa Tipiṭakadhara Dhammabhaṇḍāgārika who answered all of them learnedly and satisfactorily. By the time this council met, all the participating countries had the Pāli Tipiṭaka rendered into their native scripts, with the exception of India.
The traditional recitation of the Dhamma Scriptures took two years during which the Tipiṭaka and its allied literature in all the scripts were painstakingly examined. Any differences found were noted down, the necessary corrections were made and all the versions were then collated. Happily, it was found that there was not much difference in the content of any of the texts. Finally, after the Council had officially approved them, all the volumes of the Tipiṭaka and their Commentaries were prepared for printing on modern presses and published in the Myanmar (Burmese) script. This notable achievement was made possible through the dedicated efforts of the two thousand five hundred monks and numerous lay people. Their work came to an end in May, 1956, two and a half millennia after the Lord attained Parinibbāna. This council's work was the unique achievement of representatives from the entire Buddhist world. The version of the Tipiṭaka which it undertook to produce has been recognized as being true to the pristine teachings of Gotama the Buddha and the most authoritative rendering of them to date.

Sunday, January 4, 2009

The Life Of Buddha

The Life Of Buddha - Part 1

The Life Of Buddha - Part 2

The Life Of Buddha - Part 3

The Life Of Buddha - Part 4

The Life Of Buddha - Part 5
 साभार : विकीपीडिया ( हिन्दी)

बौद्ध धर्म भारत की श्रमण परम्परा से निकला धर्म और दर्शन है । इसके प्रस्थापक महात्मा बुद्ध शाक्यमुनि (गौतम बुद्ध) थे । वे छठवीं से पाँचवीं शताब्दी ईसा पूर्व तक जीवित थे । उनके गुज़रने के अगले पाँच शताब्दियों में, बौद्ध धर्म पूरे भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप में फ़ैला, और अगले दो हज़ार सालों में मध्य, पूर्वी और दक्षिण-पूर्वी जम्बू महाद्वीप में भी फ़ैल गया । आज, बौद्ध धर्म में तीन मुख्य सम्प्रदाय हैं: थेरवाद, महायान और वज्रयान । बौद्ध धर्म को पैंतीस करोड़ से अधिक लोग मानते हैं और यह दुनिया का चौथा सबसे बड़ा धर्म है ।
"बुद्ध" वे कहलाते हैं, जिन्होने सालों के ध्यान के बाद यथार्थता का सत्य भाव पहचाना हो । इस पहचान को बोधि नाम दिया गया है । जो भी "अज्ञानता की नींद" से जागते हैं, वे "बुद्ध" कहलाते हैं । कहा जाता है कि बुद्ध शाक्यमुनि केवल एक बुद्ध हैं - उनके पहले बहुत सारे थे और भविष्य में और होंगे । उनका कहना था कि कोई भी बुद्ध बन सकता है अगर वह उनके "धर्म" के अनुसार एक धार्मिक जीवन जीए और अपनी बुद्धि को शुद्ध करे । बौद्ध धर्म का अन्तिम लक्ष्य है इस दुःख भरी स्थिति का अंत । "मैं केवल एक ही पदार्थ सिखाता हूँ - दुःख और दुःख निरोध" (बुद्ध) । बौद्ध धर्म के अनुयायी आर्य अष्टांग मार्ग के अनुसार जीकर अज्ञानता और दुःख से मुक्ति और निर्वाण पाने की कोशिश करते हैं ।

गौतम बुद्ध

गौतम बुद्ध शाक्य गोत्र के थे और उनका वास्तविक नाम सिद्धार्थ था । उनका जन्म लुंबिनी, कपिलवस्तु (शाक्य महाजनपद की राजधानी) के पास की जगह, में हुआ था । लुंबिनी के ठीक स्थान पर, जो दक्षिण मध्य नेपाल में है, महाराज अशोक ने तीसरी शताब्दी ईसा पूर्व में एक स्तम्भ बनाया था, बुद्ध के जन्म के गुणगान में ।
सिद्धार्थ के पिता शुद्धोदन थे, शाक्यों के राजा । परंपरागत कथा के अनुसार, सिद्धार्थ की माता उनके जन्म के कुछ देर बाद मर गयी थी । कहा जाता है कि फ़िर एक ऋषि ने सिद्धार्थ से मिलकर कहा कि वे या तो एक महान राजा बनेंगे, या फ़िर एक महान साधु । इस भविष्य वाणी को सुनकर राजा शुद्धोदान ने अपनी योग्यता की हद तक सिद्धार्थ को दुःख से दूर रखने की कोशिश की । फ़िर भी, २९ वर्ष की उम्र पर, उनकी दृष्टि चार दृश्यों पर पड़ी (संस्कृत चतुर निमित्त) - एक बूढ़े अपाहिज आदमी, एक बीमार आदमी, एक मुरझाती हुई लाश, और एक साधु । इन चार दृश्यों को देखकर सिद्धार्थ समझ गये कि सब का जन्म होता है, सब का बुढ़ापा आता है, सब को बीमारी होती है, और एक दिन, सब की मौत होती है । उन्होने अपना धनवान जीवन, अपनी जाति, अपनी पत्नी, अपने बच्चे, सब को छोड़कर साधु का जीवन अपना लिया ताकि वे जन्म, बुढ़ापे, दर्द, बीमारी, और मौत के बारे में कोई उत्तर खोज पाएं ।
सिद्धार्थ ने पान्च ब्राह्मणों के साथ अपने प्रश्नों के उत्तर ढूंढने शुरू किये । वे उचित ध्यान पा पएं, परंतु उन्हे उत्तर नहीं मिले । फ़िर उन्होने तपस्या करने की कोशिश की । वे इस कार्य में भी प्रवीण निकले, अपने गुरुओं से भी ज़्यादा, परंतु उन्हे अपने प्रश्नों के उत्तर फ़िर भी नहीं मिले । फ़िर उन्होने कुछ साथी इकठ्ठे किये और चल दिये अधिक कठोर तपस्या करने । ऐसे करते करते छः वर्ष बाद, भूख के कारण मरने के करीब-करीब से गुज़रकर, बिना अपने प्रश्नों के उत्तर पाएं, वे फ़िर कुछ और करने के बारे में सोचने लगे । इस समय, उन्हे अपने बचपन का एक पल याद आया जब उनके पिता खेत तयार करना शुरू कर रहे थे । उस समय वे एक आनंद भरे ध्यान में पड़ गये थे और उन्हे ऐसा महसूस हुआ कि समय स्थित हो गया है ।
कठोर तपस्या छोड़कर उन्होने आर्य अष्टांग मार्ग ढूंढ निकाला, जो बीच का मार्ग भी कहलाता जाता है क्योंकि यह मार्ग दोनो तपस्या और असंयम की पाराकाष्टाओं के बीच में है । अपने बदन में कुछ शक्ति डालने के लिये, उन्होने एक बकरी-वाले से कुछ दूध ले लिया । वे एक पीपल के पेड़ (जो अब बोधि पेड़ कहलाता है) के नीचे बैठ गये प्रतिज्ञा करके कि वे सत्य जाने बिना उठेंगे नहीं । ३५ की उम्र पर, उन्होने बोधि पाई और वे बुद्ध बन गये । उनका पहिला धर्मोपदेश वाराणसी के पास सारनाथ मे था ।
अपने बाकी के ४५ वर्ष के लिये, गौतम बुद्ध ने गंगा नदी के आस-पास अपना धर्मोपदेश दिया, धनवान और कंगाल लोगों दोनो को । उन्होने दो सन्यासियों के संघ की भी स्थापना जिन्होने बुद्ध के धर्मोपदेश को फ़ैलाना जारी रखा ।
अपने बाकी के ४५ वर्ष के लिये, गौतम बुद्ध ने गंगा नदी के आस-पास अपना धर्मोपदेश दिया, धनवान और कंगाल लोगों दोनो को । उन्होने दो सन्यासियों के संघ की भी स्थापना जिन्होने बुद्ध के धर्मोपदेश को फ़ैलाना जारी रखा ।